Significant Dates

08-07-1789: War Department (WD) created.

1794: The Federal armory at Springfield, Massachusetts was established.

05-14-1812: Ordnance Department established.

1906 thru 1922 SA produces M1905 Bayonets; 1906 thru 1920 RIA produces M1905 Bayonets. Many of these end up being used on M1 Rifles with modified M1905, M1910, and M3 Scabbards.

04-06-17: U.S. entered the World War or the Great War. In 1939 it became known as World War I.

11-11-18: The Great War ended; known as Armistice Day. 5-13-38 Armistice Day becomes a Federal holiday. 6-1-54 Armistice Day becomes Veteran's Day celebrated Nov. 11.

11-04-19: John C. Garand began employment at Springfield Armory.

09-01-39: Germany invades Poland. This was the beginning of World War II.

09-16-40: First peacetime conscription in U.S. history; males 21-35; later changed to 18-45.

12-07-41: Japan attacks the U.S. at Pearl Harbor.

12-08-41: U.S. declares war on Japan

12-11-41: U.S. declares war on Germany & Italy.

06-05-42: U.S. declares war on Bulgaria, Hungary, & Romania.

09-03-43: Italy surrenders.

05-08-45: Victory in Europe (VE Day) - Germany surrenders.

08-15-45: Victory over Japan (VJ Day) - Japan surrenders.

09-02-45: Formal Japanese surrender signed (on Sunday) aboard the USS Missouri.

08-31-49: Armed Forces Day created. Celebrated the third Saturday of May.


1930 thru 1939

01-01-34 thru 02-08-38: Lt Col T.J. Smith made Commanding Officer at Springfield Armory.

02-09-38 thru 09-12-38: Lt Col William A. Borden made temporary CO of SA.

03-xx-32: T1E2 .30 cal. rifles began production at SA (s/n 1-80).

08-xx-33: T1E2 designated as the U.S. Semiauto Rifle, Cal..30, M1.

01-09-36: M1 Rifle adopted.

10-20-36: M1 clip loading machine adopted.

01-12-37: Arthur H. Tuttle began his empolyment at SA.

08-03-37 thru 6-30-41: Lt Col Robert Sears (RS) was in charge of WRA inspection at Hartford Ordnance District.

08-xx-37: First production M1 Rifle deliveries began with s/n 81. Stanley S.P. Gibbs (SPG) was first M1 Rifle inspector.

03-09-38: Op rod D 35382 adopted.

1938: Leather Scabbard M1938 adopted; first converting M1918 scabbards into M1938 configuration.

09-13-38 thru 06-10-42: Col/Brig Gen Gilbert H. Stewart (GHS) made CO of SA.

04-04-39: Winchester Educational Order for 500 M1's (assigned s/n block 100,001 thru 100,500).

09-20-39: WRA production contract for 65,000 M1's (assigned s/n block 100,501 thru 165,500).

10-26-39: Directive issued changing gas cylinder design from screw-on to spline type.

10-27-39: 10 M1's with new front end ship from SA to Ft Benning, GA for testing. All are low 5 digit serial numbers.

11-09-39: M2 Ball ammunition adopted.


1940 thru 1949

03-01-40: Spline type gas cylinder assembly & "gas port" barrel adopted.

03-15-40: Trap door butt plate adopted.

04-xx-40: Receiver error corrected (42-44K s/n range).

06-xx-40: SA starts dating "gas port" M1 barrels; final "gas trap" M1s completed.

06-21-40: -4 follower adopted; -1 trigger housing adopted.

06-24-40: No hole -6 safety adopted.

10-xx-40: Art Tuttle becomes M1 "Troubleshooter;" SA inspector Stanley S.P. Gibbs (SPG) becomes Manufacturing Inspection Foreman.

10-29-40: Wallace Barnes op rod spring, short fork follower rod, & -2 op rod adopted.

11-29-40: -3 op rod adopted.

12-11-40: SA M1 s/n 100,000 completed (on display at SANHS).

01-xx-41: WRA delivers their 500 Educational Order M1 Rifles.

02-20-41: USMC adopts the M1 Rifle.

03-11-41: Lend Lease Act becomes law.

05-10-41: -8 follower adopted.

06-09-41: M1 Helmet adopted.

07-01-41 thru 6-16-42: Maj Waldemar S. Broberg (WB) takes charge of WRA inspection at Hartford Ordnance District.

08-xx-41: M3 Bayonet Scabbard adopted.

10-11-41: -9 follower adopted (very few produced).

11-21-41: Long barrel channel stocks to be eliminated by Assembly Defect Report #271.

1942: Tests began on shortening the M1905 Bayonet blade to 10 inches with the designation M1905E1; both spear point & beak point modifications were done. M1 web sling adopted.

01-xx-42: 1/2" cross cannon stamp comes in; narrow slot small wood screw changed to larger slot.

04-xx-42: First contractor production of the M1905 Bayonet begins; 821,561 produced in 1942 by six contractors.

04-04-42: "Lock bar" replaces spanner nut on short pinion.

06-11-42 thru 07-31-43: Col/Brig Gen Earl McFarland (EMcF) made CO of SA (his second tour as CO).

06-17-42 thru 7-15-45: Col/Brig Gen Guy H. Drewry (GHD) takes over WRA inspection at Hartford Ordnance District.

06-30-42: M1 Rifle shipment to Britain under Lend-Lease law ceases; 38,001 M1s delivered.

10-14-42: Long fork follower rod; -6 op rod adopted.

10-22-42: Lubriplate 130-A adopted.

11-11-42: -8 op rod adopted.

11-14-42: Long pinion with new "lock bar" adopted.

03-xx-43: M1 Bayonet standardized from the shortened M1905E1 Bayonet design. Five contractors manufacture 2,948,649 M1 Bayonets from 4-43 thru 8-45.

03-05-43: M7 Grenade Launcher with "S" marked gas cylinder lock screw adopted.

05-xx-43: Production of M1905 Bayonets ceases; 717,014 produced from 1-43 thru 5- 43.

05-27-43: Field Service Modification Work Order issued that a perpendicular saw cut be made in front sight dovetail of gas cylinders to reduce angular motion.

07-xx-43: Front sight seal being eliminated.

08-01-43 thru 8-4-44: Col George A. Woody (GAW) made CO of SA.

08-05-44 thru 10-7-44: Col Champlin F. Buck, Jr. made temporary CO of SA.

08-08-43: Hammer spring plunger without ears adopted.

09-xx-43: Five contractors begin modifying M1905 Bayonets into M1 Bayonets. From 9-43 thru 8-45 1,007,671 M1905 Bayonets were converted.

10-11-43: M7 Grenade Auxiliary Cartridge adopted.

12-16-43: -9 op rod adopted.

01-xx-44: Stamped bullet guides without the notch cut adopted by SA.

03-xx-44: Standard Products gets M1 Rifle rebuild contract; overhauls 141,240 M1 Rifles.

03-01-44: Modification Work Order issued changing the perpendicular saw cut to a diagonal saw cut in gas cylinders.

03-02-44: Poppet type gas cylinder lock screws adopted (six manufacturers). T59E3 Grenade Launcher Sight adopted as M15.

07-27-44: M1E7 sniper rifle adopted as M1C; SA manufactures 4,971 M1Cs thru 6-30-45.

10-8-44 thru 11-16-45: Brig Gen Norman F. Ramsey (NFR) made CO of SA.

10-16-44: Leather cheek pad assembly adopted for use on M1C & M1D sniper rifles.

10-23-44: Stamped trigger guard with notch adopted.

10-26-44: M1E8 sniper rifle adopted as substitute standard M1D.

11-23-44: Lyman Alaskan M73 Telescope adopted as M81 & M82.

12-09-44: T105E1 rear sight assembly adopted as C7312737 Knob & C7312738 Pinion Assy.

01-xx-45: Rubber eyeshield and sunshade adopted for M81/M82 scopes.

01-25-45: M2 Flash Hider adopted (manufactured by SA).

03-xx-45: WRA WIN-13 production contract issued for 30,000 M1s; begins at s/n 1,601,150.

05-xx-45: M84 Telescope standardized for use on M1903A4; none produced.

05-07-45: M1C receivers & brackets heat treated and Parkerized separately.

06-21-45: SA inspector stamp SA/NFR changed to SA/SHM.

06-28-45: WRA delivers its last M1 Rifles.

06-30-45: WRA M1 Rifle contract is cancelled.

07-01-45 thru 06-30-46: SA manufactures 3,000 M1Cs and 9,876 M2 Flash Hiders ( FY46).

07-05-45: -10 op rod adopted.

07-21-45: M7A1 Grenade Launcher approved for standardization; manufactured by RIA.

08-08-45: MRT stamp for "mildew resistance treatment" adopted.

09-02-45: Lend-Lease Law is terminated.

09-xx-45: SA ceases M1 production with 750 final rifles with acceptance stamp SHM.

12-18-45: Hardened gas cylinder lock marked "H" adopted.

11-17-45 thru 08-09-47: Col Stephen H. McGregor (SHM) made CO of SA.

08-10-47 thru 08-20-47: Lt Col F.J. McMorrow made temporary CO of SA.

07-01-46 thru 06-30-47: SA overhauls 43,950 M1 Rifles and cans 87,300.

11-06-46: Timing Gage 41-G-428-325 (7319920) is adopted.

04-xx-47: Order given to destroy all M1s with the old front end.

06-xx-47: San Antonio Arsenal (S.A.A.) closes.

07-01-47 thru 6-30-48: SA overhauls 42,477 M1s and cans 220,310.

07-26-47: Department of Defense (DoD) replaces War Department (WD).

08-21-47 thru 5-31-50: Col Morris K. Barroll, Jr. made CO of SA.

04-03-48: Economic Cooperation Act aka the Marshall Plan signed into law ending in 1951. WRA M1 Rifle machinery sent to Beretta in Italy under this program.

06-xx-48: Springfield Armory dismantles the canning line.

08-xx-48: Preliminary testing of the M1 as a National Match rifle was conducted at SA by Art Tuttle.

10-xx-48: New production SA barrels and others going thru rebuild are chrome plated on the gas cylinder bearing area.

11-xx-48: Op rod handle enlarged to have larger relief fillet; marked D35382 SA

03-16-49: Stamped bullet guides with notch adopted.

04-04-49: NATO signed.

07-25-49: NATO ratified.


1950 thru 1959

06-01-50 thru 06-30-50: Lt Col F.J. McMorrow made temporary CO of SA.

07-01-50 thru 05-13-53: Col James L. Guion (JLG) made CO of SA.

05-14-53 thru 07-31-53: Col John F. Harlan made temporary CO of SA.

08-01-53 thru 08-31-54: Col W.J. Crowe made CO of SA.

09-01-54 thru 6-14-55: Col D.G. Ludlam made CO of SA.

06-15-55 thru 01-18-56: Col John F. Harlan made temporary CO of SA.

01-19-56 thru 09-01-58: Col D.G. Ludlam made CO of SA. (His second tour of SA.)

09-02-58 thru 09-01-59: Col Oren E. Hurlbut made CO of SA.

09-02-59 thru 06-30-63: Col C.L.P. Medinnis made CO of SA.

06-xx-50 Hooks on stamped trigger guards modified; notch replaced by bend.

06-25-50: Korean War begins.

06-28-50: Ordnance Department becomes the Ordnance Corps.

1951: Project Salvo begins under the assumption that firing multiple projectiles would increase the probability of hitting the target. It was decided to chrome plate bullet guides with low cams. Double size training models of the M1 and others are adopted.

01-xx-51: M84 Telescope adopted for M1C/M1D; 16,000 procured in FY 52; made by Leupold & Stevens, Libby-Owens-Ford Glass Co., & R. Wendel, Inc.; 3,000 M73 Lyman Alaskan scopes contracted for to be used on M1Ds. H&R and Marlin get M1 barrel contracts.

01-04-51: Gas cylinder lock with boss adopted.

01-29-51: Army tests but does not adopt the T119 Grenade Launcher.

03-xx-51: Solid lower band pin replaced by spring pin.

05-xx-51: Earliest SA M1D barrel date.

06-14-51: First M1 Rifle converted to M1D.

06-15-51: IHC first M1 contract begins at 4,440,001-4,660,000; later changed to 4,400,001 for 220,000 M1s; 6,804 rifles delivered in Fiscal Year 1953 (July 1, 1952 - June 30, 1953).

06-28-51: LMR gets M1 barrel contract.

06-30-51: Remington gets contract to produce 19 M1 parts.

07-xx-51: M7A2 Grenade Launcher adopted.

07-20-51: SA starts converting 100 M1's into M1D's (due 4-52).

10-xx-51: Commercial Lyman Alaskan scopes being used on first lot of M1Ds.

10-18-51: M10 Cleaning Rod assembly adopted.

11-27-51: SA starts converting 196 more M1s into M1Ds (due date 7-52).

12-10-51: SA starts converting 14,325 more M1s into M1Ds & 3,087 M1s into M1Cs (due date 7-52).

12-31-51: Stanley S.P. Gibbs (SPG) retires.

1952: Marine Corps adopts new M1 sniper rifle as MC 1952 with Kollmorgen 4xD scope, G&H MC-1 mount, & M2 Flash Hider. A single M1 National Match Trophy Rifle was produced by Springfield Armory and sold to the NRA.

01-xx-52: SA starts new M1 production by using unfinished receivers from WWII beginning at s/n 4,200,000-4,400,000. 6,080 rifles are delivered in Fiscal Year 1952. "P" being omitted from gas cylinder lock screws.

04-03-52: H&R gets their first contract for 100,000 M1 Rifles beginning at s/n 4,660,001-4,800,000. 500 M1s are delivered in Fiscal Year 1953 (July 1, 1952 - June 30, 1953).

04-20-52: Clip loading machines produced again at SA.

09-xx-52: M7A3 Grenade Launcher adopted.

11-xx-52: SA moves barrel drawing number from the top to the side.

1953: First official M1 National Match Rifle production. Hart Mfg. Co. begins producing M2 Flash Hiders with stamped brackets.

04-30-53: John C. Garand retires from SA.

05-xx-53: M84 Telescopes are in use in the Army system.

05-01-53: T37 Flash Hider adopted.

07-27-53: Korean War truce signed.

07-30-53: T10 Bayonet-Knife standardized as M5; manufactured by four contractors.

11-xx-53: D prefix drawing number on SA barrels changes to F.

07-xx-54 thru 12-54: SA produces 10,000 triggers & 18,800 op rods for IHC.

08-11-54: The sale of M1 Rifles to civilians was first authorized for participants in the 1954 National Matches (8-11-54 thru 9-5-54). M40 Dummy Round adopted.

01-01-55 thru 6-30-55: RIA rebuilds 2,011 M1Ds.

03-xx-55: Augusta Arsenal (A.A.) closes.

04-01-55: Ogden Arsenal (O.G.) closes.

11-xx-55: LMR ceases M1 barrel production.

12-xx-55: Metal tips added to M8/M8A1 Scabbards.

04-04-56: M5A1 Bayonet-Knife adopted; four manufacturers.

07-01-56 thru 12-31-56: RIA rebuilds 17 M1Cs.

10-xx-56: SA ceases standard M1 Rifle barrel production; begins again in late 1962.

1957: NM rear sight apertures 595 & 520 adopted.

05-01-57: M14 Rifle adopted.

05-14-57: Army converts to the metric system per Army Reg 700-75.

05-17-57: Last issue grade M1 assembled at SA (10:43 a.m.) s/n 6,084,405 on display at SANHS.

06-xx-57: M31 Rifle Grenade becomes limited standard.

1958: T291 cartridge adopted as M72 National Match round; NM gas cylinder adopted. RIA Small Arms Rebuild Section is transferred to SA.

03-10-58: NM M1 barrel 7790134 adopted; made from existing LMR barrels.

04-xx-58: Springfield Armory begins production of the new M14 Rifle.

05-08-58: "T" prefix for test and experimental guns is changed to "XM."

1959: NM rear sight base, windage knob, & front sight adopted.

02-06-59: Gas Cylinder Lock Screw 7267797 marked "T" adopted.


1960 thru 1969

07-01-63 thru 9-20-65: Col William J. Durrenberger made CO of SA.

09-21-65 thru 10-30-67: Col Arthur H. Sweeney, Jr. made CO of SA.

10-31-67 thru April 30, 1968: Lt Col Charles B. Zumwalt made CO of SA.

1960: SA starts glass bedding NM M1 stocks; last 4 digits of s/n white painted in stock channel and on front wall of trigger housing of NM M1s.

04-15-60: NM op rod 7790722 adopted (three variations of markings).

1961: NM barrel 7791035 adopted.

12-15-61: NM2 rear sight base adopted.

12-16-61: NM 595 & NM 520 hooded apertures adopted.

07-01-62: Chemical, Ordnance, Quartermaster, Signal, & Transportation Corps are consolidated into the new Army Materiel Command.

12-xx-62: SA starts manufacturing standard M1 Rifle barrels again.

11-xx-63: NM2A rear sight base adopted.

1963: Last year of NM M1 Rifle production at SA; highest observed s/n is 6,100,499. Raritan Arsenal (R.A.) closes.

1964: M118 NM round in 7.62 MM NATO adopted.

03-31-64: Benecia Arsenal (B.A.) closes.

10-30-64: Navy adopts a bushing to convert .30 caliber M1 barrels into 7.62mm NATO caliber.

11-19-64: Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara under President Lyndon Johnson announces closure of Springfield Armory.

1965-72: Toelle Army Depot rebuilds standard M1s and M1D Sniper Rifles.

05-xx-65 thru 03-xx-66: SA manufactures M1 barrels in 7.62mm NATO caliber for the Navy for installation on their Mk 2 Mod 1 rifles.

06-xx-65: Gas cylinders with saw cuts are to be tack welded on both sides at the top for continued use.

07-xx-65: M14 extractor adopted for the M1 Rifle.

1965-67: Marine Corps overhauls M1 Rifles engraving receiver heel 0-65 thru 0-67.

1967: SA National Match program transfers to Rock Island Arsenal. 1967 and into the 1970s, RIA makes a number of NM M1 Trophy Rifles and Trophy M1911A1s.

01-xx-67: Erie Army Depot (adjacent to Camp Perry) closes.

02-xx-67 thru 7-67: WRA makes M1 barrels.

03-xx-67: SA ceases M1 barrel production.

05-15-67: Last M1D assembled at SA; s/n 485,083 "select grade officer's presentation rifle." (See GSR #8 front cover for article.)

09-xx-67: SA packages up their M1 Rifle operating rod handles 6535384.

04-30-68: Springfield Armory (S.A.) closes.

06-xx-69: RIA manufactures match grade M1 barrels in 7.62mm NATO caliber for the USAF.

08-05-69: Op rod 7790722 replaces op rod 6535382 on standard M1s.


1970 thru 1999

02-20-70: M10 Scabbard adopted for use on the M5/M5A1Bayonet-Knife.

02-16-74: John C. Garand dies at age 86.

09-30-74: Federal Stock Numbers (FSN's) replaced by National Stock Numbers (NSN's).

1977: Frankford Arsenal (F.A.) closes.

03-21-78: Springfield Armory Museum becomes Springfield Armory National Historic Site (SANHS).

03-10-80: Stanley S.P. Gibbs (SPG) dies at age 89.

10-03-85: Ordnance Corps is reestablished.

02-10-96: DCM program ends and Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP) is chartered.


2000 thru present

04-20-04: Arthur H. Tuttle the "Troubleshooter" dies at age 92.

10-04-08: World's first "gas trap" only high power match held at Garand Stand KD Range. (See GSR #75 pages 8-9 for article.)

10-03-09: World's first M1D only sniper high power match held at Garand Stand KD Range. (See GSR #78 page 2 for article.)

06-12-11: World's first M1C/MC 1952 only sniper high power match held at Garand Stand KD Range. (See GSR #85 pages 4-5 for article.)